Foundation Truth ~ Pneumatology ~ Pastor Rodney Zedicher ~ Ephraim Church of the Bible ~

I. The Nature of the Holy Spirit: [see also notes on the Trinity]

A. Personality:

1. He Has Attributes of a Person: Intellect (I Corinthians 2:10-11); Emotion (Ephesians 4:30); Will (I Corinthians 12:11); Moral Characteristics (called ‘Holy’ 94 times; Galatians 5:22-23)

2. He Performs Actions of a Person: Teaches (John 14:26); Bears Witness (John 15:26); Leads, Guides (Romans 8:14); Intercedes (Romans 8:26); Sends Out, Directs (Acts 13:14)

3. He is Treated as a Person: Lied To (Acts 5:3); Resisted (Acts 7:51); Blasphemed (Matthew 12:31); Insulted (Hebrews 10:29)

4. The Masculine Pronoun used with Neuter ‘Spirit’ (John 15:26; 16:13-14)

B. Deity:

1. Holy Spirit Declared to be God (Acts 5:3-4, 9; I Corinthians 3:16; II Corinthians 3:16-18; Acts 7:51);  

Quotation of what God said attributed to Holy Spirit (Acts 28:25-27/Isaiah 6:8-10; Hebrews 3:7-11/Psalm 95:7-11; Hebrews 10:15-17/ Jeremiah 31:31-34)

2. Attributes of God Alone Attributed to Holy Spirit: Eternity (Hebrews 9:14); Omniscience (I Corinthians 2:10); Omnipotence (Luke 1:35; Zechariah 4:6 Acts 10:38); Omnipresence (Psalm 139:7-10)

3. Holy Spirit Does Works Only God Can Do: Creation (Genesis 1:2; Psalm 33:6; 104:30); Regeneration (John 3:5-6; Titus 3:5); Sanctification (I Peter 2:1; II Corinthians 3:18); Raising the Dead (Romans 8:11)

4. Exercises Rights of Deity: Directs Philip (Acts 8:29); Sends Missionaries (Acts 13:4); Prohibits Paul’s Plan (Acts 16:6-7);  Distributes Gifts as He Wills (I Corinthians 12:4-11); Deserves Obedience and Worship (Matthew 12:31)

5. Triadic Passages – Father, Son and Spirit Mentioned Together (Matthew 28:19; II Corinthians 13:14; Isaiah 48:16)


II The Names and Pictures of the Holy Spirit:

Hebrew xwr Ruach  [roo'- akh] and Greek pneuma Pneuma = breath, wind, invisible power

He is the person through whom the efficiency and power of God is directly exercised

The name “Holy Spirit” describes relation to Trinity: Spirit is the breath or power of God; the executive of the Godhead; whatever God does he does by the Spirit.

Holy in nature and work: absolutely holy in his own nature; the cause of holiness in all creatures

The Spirit appeared as a Dove: (Luke 3:22); characterized by gentleness, tenderness, and purity.

The Spirit is pictured as Anointing Oil: (Luke 4:18; Acts 10:38); oil used for anointing priests, prophets and kings to prepare them for ministry; oil used in lamps to provide illumination; oil used to sanctify lepers.

The Spirit pictured as Clothing: (Luke 24:49); clothed with power, protection, holiness and identification.

The Spirit is symbolized as Fire: (Acts 2:3-4; Matthew 3:11-12); pictures judgment and purification.

The Spirit pictured as Living Waters: (John 7:38-39; 4:14); quenches thirst, gives life, refreshes, cleanses.

The Holy Spirit as the Seal and Earnest: (Ephesians 1:13-14; 4:30; II Corinthians 1:21-22); divine stamp to give assurance of a completed transaction; first installment or down payment.


III. The Work of the Holy Spirit:

A. In Creation

Genesis 1:2  ... And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.

Job 33:4  The Spirit of God has made me,  and the breath of the Almighty gives me life.

Psalm 33:6  By the word of the LORD the heavens were made,  and by the breath of his mouth all their host.

Psalm 104:29-30  When you hide your face, they are dismayed; when you take away their breath, they die and return to their dust. When you send forth your Spirit, they are created, and you renew the face of the ground.

John 6:63  It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh is of no avail. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life.


B. Under the Old Covenant

1. The Spirit came upon or dwelt in only some of the people of God.

Numbers 11:16  Then the LORD said to Moses, “Gather for me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom you know to be the elders of the people and officers over them, and bring them to the tent of meeting, and let them take their stand there with you.

25  Then the LORD came down in the cloud and spoke to him, and took some of the Spirit that was on him and put it on the seventy elders. And as soon as the Spirit rested on them, they prophesied. But they did not continue doing it.

29  But Moses said to him, “Are you jealous for my sake? Would that all the LORD’s people were prophets, that the LORD would put his Spirit on them!”

Bezaleel (Exodus 31:3); Joshua (Numbers 27:18); Othniel, Gideon, Jepthah (Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29); David (I Samuel 16:13), Daniel (Daniel 4:8)

2. The Spirit was not permanently given

1 Samuel 10:10, 11:6  And the Spirit of God rushed upon Saul when he heard these words,

1 Samuel 16:14  Now the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD tormented him.

Psalms 51:11  Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me.


C. In the Life of Christ

Conceived (Luke 1:35; Matthew 1:20); Anointed (Luke 4:18; Acts 10:38); Sealed (John 6:27); Filled (John 3:34; Luke 4:1; Isaiah 42:1); Empowered (Luke 4:14; Matthew 12:28;); Led (Luke 4:1-2; John 8:28-29); Offered Himself (Hebrews 9:14); Resurrected (Romans 8:11; 1:4; I Timothy 3:16; I Peter 3:18)


D. Under the New Covenant
Ephesians 1:3  Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places,


1. Birthing (Regeneration)

John 3:3-8  Jesus answered him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.” 4  Nicodemus said to him, “How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born?” 5  Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. 6  That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7  Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’ 8  The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.”

Titus 3:5-6  he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit,  whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,

John 1:12-13  But to all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God,  who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.

II Corinthians 5:17  Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come.

Colossians 2:11-13  In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ,  having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead.  And you, who were dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses,


2. Immersing (Baptizing)

John 1:33  I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.’

Acts 1:5  for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”

I Corinthians 12:13  For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body––Jews or Greeks, slaves or free––and all were made to drink of one Spirit. (I Corinthians 3:1-3 -even unspiritual believers)

Galatians 3:27  For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

Romans 6:3-4  Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?  We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.

Ephesians 4:4-5  There is one body and one Spirit––just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call–– one Lord, one faith, one baptism,

(Special Cases: Jews – Acts 2; Samaritans – Acts 8; God-Fearers & Gentiles - Acts 10-11, 15)


3. Indwelling

John 14:16-17  And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, to be with you forever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you.

I Corinthians 3:16-17  Do you not know that you are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit dwells in you? If anyone destroys God’s temple, God will destroy him. For God’s temple is holy, and you are that temple.

I Corinthians 6:19-20  Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? You are not your own, for you were bought with a price. So glorify God in your body.

Romans 8:9  You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.

I John 3:24  Whoever keeps his commandments abides in him, and he in them. And by this we know that he abides in us, by the Spirit whom he has given us.

II Timothy 1:14  By the Holy Spirit who dwells within us, guard the good deposit entrusted to you.


4. Sealing

Ephesians 1:13-14  In him you also, when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit, who is the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it, to the praise of his glory.

Ephesians 4:30  And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.

2 Corinthians 1:22  and who has also put his seal on us and given us his Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee.

2 Corinthians 5:5  He who has prepared us for this very thing is God, who has given us the Spirit as a guarantee.


5. Gifting

I Corinthians 12

 (4  Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; 7  To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good.  11  All these are empowered by one and the same Spirit, who apportions to each one individually as he wills. 14  For the body does not consist of one member but of many. 18  But as it is, God arranged the members in the body, each one of them, as he chose.)

Hebrews 2:4  while God also bore witness by signs and wonders and various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.

Romans 12:3-8; Ephesians 4:11-16; I Peter 4:10-11; II Timothy 1:6-7


6. Illuminating

I Corinthians 2:7-16 (10 these things God has revealed to us through the Spirit.  14 The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned.)


7. Leading

Romans 8:14  For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.

Galatians 5:18  But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.


8. Filling

Ephesians 5:18  And do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery, but be filled with the Spirit,

Acts 4:31  And when they had prayed, the place in which they were gathered together was shaken, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and continued to speak the word of God with boldness.

Acts 13:52  And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit.

Romans 15:13  May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.


9. Purifying (Sanctifying)

Romans 15:16  to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.

I Corinthians 6:11  And such were some of you. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.

II Thessalonians 2:13  But we ought always to give thanks to God for you, brothers beloved by the Lord, because God chose you as the firstfruits to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth.

I Peter 1:2 according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood:     May grace and peace be multiplied to you.

Galatians 3:3  Are you so foolish? Having begun by the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the flesh?


10. Producing

Galatians 5:22  But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness 23  gentleness, self–control; against such things there is no law. 24  And those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires. 25  If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit.

Galatians 5:16  But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not gratify the desires of the flesh.

Galatians 5:25  If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit.

Philippians 3:3  For we are the real circumcision, who worship by the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh––




Excursus: The Prophetic Expectation of the New Covenant Work of the Spirit

Numbers 11:29  But Moses said to him, “Are you jealous for my sake? Would that all the LORD’s people were prophets, that the LORD would put his Spirit on them!”

Joel 2:28-29  “And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions. Even on the male and female servants in those days I will pour out my Spirit.

Isaiah 44:3  For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my Spirit upon your offspring, and my blessing on your descendants.

Ezekiel 39:29  And I will not hide my face anymore from them, when I pour out my Spirit upon the house of Israel, declares the Lord GOD.”

Ezekiel 37:13-14  And you shall know that I am the LORD, when I open your graves, and raise you from your graves, O my people.  And I will put my Spirit within you, and you shall live, and I will place you in your own land. Then you shall know that I am the LORD; I have spoken, and I will do it, declares the LORD.”

Ezekiel 36:26-27  And I will give you a new heart, and a new spirit I will put within you. And I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.  And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes and be careful to obey my rules.

Jeremiah 31:33  But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the LORD: I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

2 Corinthians 3:6 who has made us competent to be ministers of a new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit. For the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.

Acts 2:38-39  And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.  For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself.”